Brazil Live Coral Calcium image

Information on the Minerals found in
our Coral Calcium

Zirconium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely

Zinc
Zinc is an essential trace mineral. Zinc is antagonistic to cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, lead, phosphorus, and sulfur.The primary role of zinc in the body is in association with proteins and metalloenzyme systems. There are over 70 enzyme systems in the body that require zinc as on of their constituents. Zinc plays a major role in the manufacturing of protein. This process is controlled by DNA and RNA which are encoded, or programmed, to take amino acids and hook them together to make polypeptides and, ultimately, specific proteins. Proteins, such as connective tissue and enzymes, are all produced according to the genetic coding of the DNA and RNA molecules.

Zinc is one of the chemical constituents of insulin and male semen. Zinc is able to speed healing because of its role in protein and nucleic acid synthesis. Zinc is also

Excessive quantities of zinc can decrease copper, iron, calcium, and cadmium absorption because they all compete for the same binding sites. Zinc is believed to decrease selenium absorption, which is another important essential trace mineral, and brings about chemical balance. Passwater and Cranton (1983) have written an excellent review on the role of zinc in the body.

The RDA in adults is 15 mg.

Yttrium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Ytterbium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely inute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Vanadium
Vanadium is an essential trace mineral. The mineral antagonists for vanadium are unknown.

Vanadium deficiency increase one’s susceptibility to cardiovascular disease and cancer. Vanadium is essential for growth and is involved in fat metabolism. A vanadium deficiency also results in increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels.

The altered cholesterol appears to be involved with the inhibition of squalene synthetase of the microsomal enzyme system by vanadium, and the stimulation of the enzyme acetoacetylcoenzyme deacylase by vanadium. This latter enzyme is involved in the conversion of fat into coenzyme A.

Vanadium has been used as an adjunctive in the treatment of diabetes (Passwater and Cranton, 1983).

The RDA for vanadium has not been established.

Tungsten
It is not an essential trace mineral and its function in the body, if any, is unknown.
Tungsten is antagonistic to molybdenium.

Titanium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.
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Tin
Tin is an essential trace mineral. The minerals that tin acts as an antagonist to are unknown.

Tin has a strong tendency to form coordination complexes (metal complexes) and to bond with carbon. Tin appears to be involved with growth, but its complete function in the body is unknown.

The RDA for tin varies from 2 – 20 mg.

Thulium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Thorium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Thallium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Terbium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Tellurium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Tantalum
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Sulfur
Sulfur is found in the body at a level of 2,000 ppm. Sulfur is an essential major mineral and is an antagonist to calcium, copper, molybdenum, and selenium.

Sulfur is present in all of the cells of the body and is essential for life. It serves as a component of three important amino acids: cystine, cysteine, and methionine. Sulfur is also a component of the hormone insulin, involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Sulfur is involved in the synthesis of keratin of the skin, hair, and nails; in carbohydrate metabolism as a component of coenzyme A; and in fat metabolism as a part of biotin and thiamin. Sulfur plays an important role in tissue respiration, in the production of connective tissue and gluatathione, and in the regulation of energy metabolism.

One of the most important functions of sulfur is in dealing with the detoxification of poisons and in radioprotection. The aminothial radioprotective agents developed by the U.S. Army all contain sulfur (-SH groups) (Sweeney, 1979)

Inorganic sulfur and or sulfur in the sulfate form apparently is not utilized by the body. The RDA for sulfur has not been established.

Strontium
It is found in the body at rather low levels of 4.6 ppm. Strontium may be an essential trace mineral, but the subject is still under investigation (Schroeder, 1973; Passwater and Cranton, 1983).

Strontium is believed to contribute to the development of strong bones and tooth structure. Strontium, molybdenum, and phosphorus may be more important to the resistance of dental decay than fluorine.

The metabolism of strontium is believed to be similar to calcium. Strontium and calcium are antagonists to each other.

Strontium is a part of the energy system of the body and is concentrated in the mitochondria, along with calcium, magnesium, and phosphorus.

If strontium is found to be an essential trace mineral, the RDA will be about 1 mg.
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Sodium
Sodium is an essential major mineral and is an antagonist to phosphorus and potassium.

Sodium and potassium are the most important electrolyte minerals in the body fluids.

Sodium and potassium play a major role in water metabolism. Sodium is the major component of the cations of extracellular fluids. Just as calcium and magnesium interact together, sodium and potassium are closely interacting minerals.

Sodium (Na+) combines with chloride (CI-), the ion of chlorine, to form table salt. The body’s metabolism carefully controls salt, conserving it and regulating its use. About 40 percent of sodium chloride salt is made up of sodium. And adult body contains about 100 grams of sodium; about one-third of the sodium is found in bone. Most of the remaining sodium resides in extracellular fluids. The metabolism and excretion of sodium is largely controlled by the adrenocortical steroids.

The bulk of human sodium requirements is obtained from sodium chloride, namely table salt. The RDA for table salt varies greatly upon climatic conditions, body temperature, exercise, disease conditions, and renal function. The RDA for an adult in a temperate climate is about 500 mg.

Silver
Silver is not an essential trace mineral and is found in the normal adult human body in the amount of about 1 mg (Venugopal and Luckey, 1978). Silver is an antagonist to copper (Prasad, 1976).

Silver is known to interact metabolically with selenium and copper (Underwood, 1977). With the absence of copper in the diet, silver was shown to increase mortality and reduce growth, hemoglobin levels, and aortic elastin (Prasad, 1976).

Silicon
Silicon is the most abundant mineral in the earth’s crust, 277,200 ppm. Silicon is considered to be an essential trace mineral of the body where it is found at levels of 260 ppm (Schroeer, 1973;NRC, 1989).

Despite the abundant distribution of silicon in the environment there is evidence that suggest that many diets may be deficient in this important mineral. Silicon is an important component in collagen, bones, in arterial metabolism, and in the prevention of arthritis and osteoporosis. The RDA has never been established.

Silicon: An Overlooked Trace Mineral
Source: LE (Life Extension) Magazine, April 2003

Silicon, an abundant trace mineral in nature is proving to be an essential ingredient for stronger bones, better skin and more flexible joints. Including silicon in your diet may boost the benefits of calcium, glucosamine and vitamin D. Here are some of the latest findings on this overlooked mineral.

The human body contains approximately 7 grams of silicon, which is present in various tissues and body fluids. The silicon in tissues is usually bonded to glycoproteins such as cartilage, whereas the silicon in blood is almost entirely found as either free orthosilicic acid or linked to small compounds.

The biological requirement for silicon was first demonstrated by Edith Carlisle and Klaus Schwarz(1,2) in experiments with rats and chickens that were fed silicon-deficient diets. These experiments demonstrated that nutritional silicon deficiency causes skeletal deformities such as abnormal skull and long bone structure, as well as poorly-formed joints with decreased cartilage content. Detailed biochemical analysis revealed that silicon is an essential nutrient for the structural integrity and development of connective tissue.(3,4)

Silicon's most popular use is as a nutritional supplement to strengthen not only the bones and connective tissues, but also hair, nails and skin.

Silicon in tissue and joints Top Of Page

Connective tissue is composed of cells which produce the fibrous protein matrixes of collagen and elastin, as well as the hydrated (water retaining) network of amino-sugars called glycosaminoglycans (GAG) or muco- polysaccharides (MPS). Silicon is believed to stabilize the glycosaminoglycan network.(5)

The amino-sugar glucosamine, which is also needed for the biosynthesis of GAGs, has been clinically proven to be effective in the treatment of arthritis.(6) Given silicon's chemical association with GAGs, it seems that the combination of both glucosamine and silicon could have a complementary therapeutic value in the treatment of arthritis and other related connective tissue diseases.

Silicon, bone and osteoporosis

Bone is actually a special type of connective tissue. Silicon is a major ion in osteogenic cells, which are the bone-forming cells in young, uncalcified bone. As the bone matures, the silicon concentration declines and deposits of calcium and phosphorous are formed simultaneously. In other words, the more "mature" the bone tissue, the lower the silicon concentration in the bone. Therefore, it has been concluded that silicon acts as a regulating factor for the deposition of calcium and phosphorous in bone tissue.(7)

Silicon's regulatory action in bone calcification and its vital role as a structural component of connective tissue are the reasons for silicon's classification as an essential trace element in animal and human nutrition.

Silicon plays an ongoing role in maintaining bones after their formation. Bone is a dynamic, living tissue system that balances bone formation by osteoblast cells and the ongoing reabsorption of bone tissue by osteoclast cells. (Bone minerals are dissolved and organic bone matrix components such as collagen are digested by the action of osteoclast cell.)

Osteoporosis occurs when there is a low rate of bone formation and a high rate of bone reabsorption, thus leading to a decline in bone mineral density and a decreased mechanical strength of the bone. Bone loss occurs generally with aging, but a clear acceleration occurs during menopause or following a failure or removal of the ovaria, which leads to estrogen deficiency.

Studies with animals indicate that silicon supplementation reduces the number of osteoclast cells, thus partially preventing bone reabsorption and bone loss.(8) On the other hand it was shown in vitro that silicon compounds stimulate the DNA synthesis in osteoblast-like cells.(9)

Animal models for osteoporosis using estrogen deficient rats demonstrate that silicon supplementation can prevent bone loss.(10) In a clinical study of 53 osteoporotic women, silicon supplementation was associated with a significant increase in the mineral bone density of the femur.(11) The positive results of these studies suggest that silicon supplementation, along with calcium and vitamin D, may be useful in the fight against osteoporosis.

Silicon's other uses

In addition to connective tissue and bone health, several other promising health benefits of silicon, such as protection against aluminum toxicity and protection of arterial tissue have been reported.

As much as aluminum has been found in brain lesions of Alzheimer's patients, several researchers have suggested that aluminum toxicity may be involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease and other neurological disorders. In studies with rats,(13) silicon was found to prevent the accumulation of aluminum in the brain. It is believed that silicon bonds with aluminum in food and beverages, thereby reducing the gastrointestinal absorption of aluminum.

The protective role of silicon against aluminum was also confirmed in a French population study of elderly subjects: high levels of aluminum in drinking water had a deleterious effect upon cognitive function when the silicon concentration was low, but when the concentration of silicon was high, exposure to aluminum appeared less likely to impair cognitive function.(14)

Atherosclerosis is a condition characterized by the formation of plaque in the arteries. Plaque is formed when damaged artery tissue is not properly repaired, thus allowing scar tissue, oxidized cholesterol and other materials to obstruct the normal blood flow.

Experiments with rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet demonstrated that supplementation with silicon protected the rabbits from developing artherosclerosis. Aside from protection against artherosclerosis, silicon is a vital structural component of arteries. However, the silicon concentration of arteries declines with age, most likely increasing the risk of lesions and plaque formations.(15,16)

Silicon in your diet Top Of Page

The daily dietary intake of silicon is estimated to be between 20 to 50 mg,17 with lower intakes associated with animal-based diets and higher intakes associated with vegetarian diets. Plants absorb orthosilicic acid from the soil and convert it into polymerized silicon for mechanical and structural support.18 This explains why fiber-rich foods such as cereals, oats, wheat bran and vegetables have a high silicon concentration. An unbalanced diet with a limited supply of vegetables, fruits and cereals will be low in silicon concentration.

While whole grain foods are a good, natural source of silicon, the silicon from these foods is insoluble and cannot be directly absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract. Silicon in food is solubilized by stomach acid into orthosilicic acid, which absorbs directly through the stomach wall and the intestine into the blood. Lower stomach acidity, whether due to illness or age, diminishes our ability to metabolize silicon from food sources.

Aging is reported to be associated with an increasing gastric pH. In this view elderly people will have a decreased capacity to convert dietary silicates into bioavailable orthosilicic acid. The refining and processing of food, which removes silicon-containing fibers, contributes to a lower dietary silicon intake. Additionally, many of the additives used in the food industry interfere with the uptake of silicon.

In fact, these additives can (a) increase the gastric pH and thereby decrease the rate of hydrolysis of dietary silicates, (b) promote polymerization of orthosilicic acid and (c) chelate minerals in general which are then eliminated through the intestinal tract without absorption. The extensive re-use of soils and the application of aquacultures minimalize the essential supply of orthosilicic acid to plants.

The resulting crops have a less rigid structure due to decreased biosynthesis of phytolytic fibers and specific epidermal cells which contain silica structures. Consequently these crops will have a lower silicon concentration and contribute less to the dietary silicon intake compared to crops which have been cultivated on a natural, mineral rich soil. Given all these factors, it is not surprising that silicon supplementation may be useful for a complete and balanced diet.

When selecting a silicon supplement, the most important considerations should be safety and bioavailability. (Bioavailability is a complex term for the degree of absorption and the biological response to the silicon compounds which are present in the product.) Organic silicon compounds, which are laboratory synthesized, contain silicon-carbon bonds. These molecules are normally not present in biological systems and can be very toxic. For this reason it is safest to use silicon compounds that are already present in nature or compounds that are the derivatives of natural products.

Common silicon supplements include:

Plant extracts:
Bamboo and algae usually have high silica concentrations. However, plant extracts are often not standardized and the silicon concentration in these products varies greatly.

References:

1. Calisle EM. Silicon, an essential element for the chick. Science 1972, 178:619-62

2. Schwartz K, et al. Growth-promoting effects of silicon in rats. Nature 1972, 239:333-334.

3. Seaborn C, et al. Effects of germanium and silicon on bone mineralization. Biological Trace Element Res 1994, 42:151-164.

4. Seaborn C, et al. Silicon deprivation decreases collagen formation in wounds and bone, and ornithine transminase enzyme activity in liver. Biol Trace Elem Res 2002, 89(3):251-61.

5. Schwartz K. A bound form of silicon in glycosaminoglycans and polyuronides. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 1973, 70(5):1608-1612.

6. Reginster J, et al. Long-term effects of glucosamine sulphate on osteoarthritis progression: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Lancet 2001, 357:251-56.

7. Carlisle EM. Silicon: a possible factor in bone calcification. Science 1970, 167:179-280.

8. Hott M, et al. Short-term effects of organic silicon on trabecular bone in mature ovariectomized rats. Calcif Tissue Int 1993, 53:174-179.

9. Keeting et al. Zeolite A increases proliferation, differentiation, and transforming growth factor beta production in normal adult human osteoblast-like cells in vitro. J Bone and Miner Res 1992, 7(11):1281-1289.

10. Rico H, et al. Effect of silicon supplement on osteopenia induced by ovariectomy in rats. Calcif Tissue Int 1999, 66:53-55.

11. Eisinger J, Clariet D. Effects of silicon, fluoride, etidronate and magnesium on bone mineral density: a retrospective study. Magnesium Research 1993, 6(3):247-249.

12. Candy JM et al. Aluminosilicates and senile plague formation in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet 1986, 1:354-356.

13. Carlisle EM, Curran MJ. Effect of dietary silicon and aluminum on silicon and aluminum levels in rat brain. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord 1987, 1:83-89.

14. Jacmin-Gadda H, et al. Silica and aluminium in drinking water and cognitive impairment in the elderly. Epidermiology 1996, 7:281-285.

15. Loeper J, et al. Study of fatty acids in atheroma induced in rabbits by an atherogenic diet with or without silicon IV treatment. Life Sciences 1988, 42:2105-2112.

16. Loeper J, et al. The antiatheromatous action of silicon. Atherosclerosis 1979, 33:397-408.

17. Pennington JAT. Silicon in foods and diets. Food Addit Contam1991, 8:97-118.

18. Sangstet AG, et al. Silica in higher plants nutrition. In Silicon Biochemistry, CIBA Foundation Symposium 121, John Wiley and Sons, New York, p. 90-111.

SilicaTop Of Page
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Selenium
Selenium is regarded as one of the most important of the essential trace elements. Selenium is an antagonist to arsenic, mercury, lead and sulfur.

Most American diets tend to be selenium deficient. Selenium is necessary in maintaining a resistance to many different diseases, including cancer (Spallholz, Martin, and Ganther, 1981).

Selenium is an important constituent in the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase which catalyzes the free radical damage produced by reducing peroxides (Newberne, 1976, 1982). Glutathione peroxidase is intracellular, located in the mitochandria and the cytosol of the cell (Halstead and Rozema, 1997). Selenium has an important protective action to the immune system, and is believed to have some anticancer activity.

Studies conducted on rats suggest that selenium reduces the overall plasma glucose level and the effect of hypoglycemia in the kidneys. More testing is needed to determine if diabetics can be afforded these same benefits.

The RDA for an adult is in the range of 50 – 200 mcg.

Scandium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Samarium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Ruthenium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Rubidium
Rubidium is not an essential trace mineral. Rubidium is an antagonist to potassium and when present in significant quantities may suppress the action of potassium.

Rubidium is useful in mineral transport in defective cell membranes. There is evidence that rubidium may help to suppress tumor growth by reducing the amount of glucose that is carried into cancer cells by potassium.

The RDA for rubidium has not been established.

Rhodium
It is not an essential trace mineral. Its function in the body, if any, is unknown. Rhodium chloride is reported to have antiviral activity (Venugopal and Luckey, 1978).

Rhenium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

PraseodymiumTop Of Page
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Potassium
An essential electrolyte mineral, potassium (K+) has an antagonistic relationship with sodium (Na+) and magnesium. Our bodies usually contain about twice as much potassium (2,00 ppm) as sodium (1,400 ppm), but because of the high intake of table salt, the level of sodium is frequently higher than it should be. The body has a mechanism to retain sodium, but a less effective system to retain potassium. Fortunately, potassium is more abundant in natural diets.

About 98 percent of the total body potassium is found in the cells where it serves as the primary intracellular cation. Intracellular fluids have more than 30 times as much potassium in the cells as in the extracellular fluids surrounding the cells. The potassium concentration within the cells is controlled by a complex process known as the sodium-potassium pump. Poisons such as saxitoxin (paralytic shellfish poison) and tetrodotoxin (puffer poison) may adversely affect the sodium-potassium pump, resulting in paralysis (Halstead, 1988).

Potassium affects almost every cell in the body and is essential to the function of the heart , muscles, and nervous system. Both sodium and potassium affect blood pressure. Potassium helps to control the nutrient intake of cells and thereby maintains cellular intake. Potassium is a cofactor in many reactions of the body, including energy production and muscle building.

The RDA for potassium is 2,000 mg a day for the average adult.

Platinum
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Phosphorus
Phosphorus is a major essential mineral and is antagonistic to beryllium, aluminum, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron calcium, and zinc.

Phosphorus has an enormous range of functions in the body. Much of its metabolism is related to calcium. It is not only involved in bone and tooth formation but is essential for the metabolism of every cell in the body. Like calcium, phosphorus is in a constant state of turnover in bone. The phosphorus content in bones is about one-half that of calcium. About 80 percent of the phosphorus content of the body is found in the bones and teeth. Fortunately, phosphorus is widely distributed in many foods and throughout the environment. Phosphorus is readily absorbed, and phosphorus deficiency in humans is rare (Harper, 1973; Passwater and Cranton, 1983).

Phosphorus forms phosphate, the major anion in the body (an ion carrying a negative charge, the opposite of a cation). Phosphate is a major constituent in the membranes of cells and plays and important role in the transport of nutrients through the cell membranes, all of which is concerned with maintenance of chemical balance within cells (cellular homoestasis). Most of the members within the vitamin B complex are effective only when combined with phosphate in the body. Many other important phosphorus compounds are formed during the process of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The enzyme phosphorylase is a key player in glucose utilization when muscles contract.

Phosphorus combines with fats (lipids) to form phospholipids that are vital to the function of cell membranes and the structure of the nervous system.

The phosphorus-containing compound known as adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is ne of the most important compounds in the body because it is concerned with energy production and the ability to conduct work. Lehninger (1977) referred to ATP as the “universal energy currency” of all living things. ATP is synthesized from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphorus through a process known as phosphorylation within the mitochondria (Halstead and Rozema, 1997).

Another important group of compounds are the nucleoproteins which contain phosphorus. The nucleoproteins constitute a large part of the nuclear material and cytoplasm of the cell. The master molecules DNA and RNA made up of nucleoproteins. Thus, nucleoproteins control cell division, reproduction, and heredity. The parathyroid glands help to regulate the phosphorus levels in the blood and the amount of phosphate excreted by the kidneys.

The RDA for phosphorus is about 850 mg of possibly more. However, athletes and those in heavy exercise may need more phosphorus than recommended for the average person, but the exact amount has not been determined.

Palladium
Palladium may be found in trace amounts in human tissues but is not an essential trace element. Palladium can be toxic to humans. Its antagonists are unknown.

Osium
Osium is generally not present in humans, has no known function in the human body, and is thus not an essential trace mineral. Osmium can be toxic to humans. Its antagonists are unknown.

NiobiumTop Of Page
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Nickel
Nickel is an essential trace mineral (Mertz and Cornatzer, 1971). Mineral antagonists to nickel are unknown.

Nickel is believed to play a significant role in maintaining the integrity of cell membranes. Laboratory evidence indicates that nickel is present in DNA and RNA, and is involved in protein replication. Nickel carbonyl in cigarette smoking is carcinogenic.

The RDA for nickel has not been established.

Neodymium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Molybdenum
Molybdenum is an essential trace mineral. Molybdenum is an antagonist to copper, magnesium, sulfur, phosphorus, titanium, and tungsten.

It is a key component in three important metalloenzyme systems, xanthine oxidase, aldehyde oxidase, and sulfite oxidase. The average adult has 9 mg of molybdenum in the body, most of it concentrated in the liver, adrenal glands, kidneys, bones and skin.

Molybdenum deficiencies have been found to be associated with cancer of the esophagus, sexual impotency, gouty arthritis, and tooth decay.

Molybdenum’s unique functions appear to be involved in the catalysis of chemical reactions that require simultaneous exchange of two electrons and two protons in enzyme systems.

Molybdenum and copper appear to have a working relationship where they may interact, share of even compete for the same metalloenzyme (Passwater and Cranton, 1983).

The RDA for molybdenum in adults is in a range of 75 – 120 mcg, which is generally available in most diets.

Mercury
Organic mercury is extremely toxic to the nervous system. Mercury is not an essential trace mineral. Selenium is antagonistic to mercury. Mercury in Brazil Coral is almost non-existent and completely safe.

Manganese
Manganese is an essential trace mineral and plays some important metabolic functions in the body. Manganese is usually found in the adult body at the level of 10 – 20 mg, most of which is found in the bone, liver and kidneys.

Manganese is an antagonist to phosphorus, magnesium, and iron. Whereas, phosphorus, magnesium, iron and calcium are antagonists to manganese. Therefore, a calcium deficiency may permit an increase in manganese uptake (Murphy, et al., 1991; Lonnerdal, 1994), resulting in manganese toxicity.

Sources of manganese are from manganese mines, infant soy formulas, nuts, whole grains, legumes, poultry, fish and seafoods (Underwood, 1977; Lonnerdal, et al., 1983; Passwater, and Cranton, 1983; Stastny, Vogel, and Picciano, 1984; van Barnveld and van den Hamer, 1984; Keen, Bell and Lonnerdal, 1986:; Dewey, et al., 1992; Klimis-Tavantzis, 1994; Lonnerdal, 1994; Raiten, Talbot and Waters, 1998).

Manganese is essential to critical enzymes involving bone formation, energy production in the mitochondria, protein metabolism, glucose tolerance, metabolism of fats, and the production of cholesterol which is vital to every cell in the body.

Manganese is incorporated into the enzymes superoxide dismutase and pyruvate carboxylase. It also serves as an enzymatic cofactor as an activator in numerous enzyme systems, such as glycosyltransferase which is concerned with the production of cartilage and bone. A manganese deficiency can result in abnormal bone and cartilage formation, and the degeneration of intervertebral discs in the spine. Manganese is also involved in the protein production, nucleic acid production, and biogenic amine metabolism. Manganese is necessary for RNA function.

Excessive manganese intake can produce brain dysfunction, Parkinsonian dementia, intellectual impairment, central nervous system destruction, violent behavior, thus contributing to delinquency and criminality (Donaldson and Barbeau, 1985; Gottschalk, et al., 1991, 1996). Gottschalk, et al., have shown that manganese levels in hair analyses is 400 times higher in violent criminals than in non-violent criminals.

A deficiency of manganese appears to be involved in the inhibition of glucose tolerance (GTF), birth defects, infertility, brain dysfunction, and inner ear imbalance (Passwater and Cranton, 1983). Once again, the important issue in manganese metabolism is in maintaining a balance of mineral and vitamin intake.

The RDA in adults for manganese is 2.5 – 5.00 mg.

MagnesiumTop Of Page
Magnesium (Mg) is the seventh most abundant element present in the body following calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, potassium, sodium and chlorine.
The amount of Magnesium consumed from self-selected diets in the United States, Europe and Asia is less than the RDA – and well credentialed experts such as Mildred Seelig MD feel that RDA levels (320 mg / day for women and 420 mg for men) are too low for optimal health. Brazil coral has significant Magnesium with 498 mg in 3 capsules.
Magnesium is an essential major mineral, serving as an antagonist to calcium, manganese, and phosphorus. Magnesium is present in the human body at 270 ppm (Schroeder, 1973) and is closely related to calcium and phosphorus in its functions in the body. About 70 percent of magnesium is contained in the bones and teeth. The remainder of the magnesium is found in the cells of the soft tissue of the body, and in extracellular fluids. Calcium (Ca++) and magnesium (Mg++) exist primarily in the fluids surrounding cells. Potassium (K+) and magnesium (Mg++) are in higher concentrations within the cell. Many types of cellular activity involve a reversal of electrical charges across the cell membrane which is accomplished by the movement of sodium (Na+) and calcium (Ca++) from the outside to the inside of the cell, (Mg++) from the inside to the outside of the cell.

Equilibrium is restored by means of the energy required for the necessary metabolic activity of the cell. In a sense, this process resembles a pumping action. Thus sodium and calcium are pumped from within the cell (intracellular) back to the extracellular fluids outside of the cell, and the potassium and the magnesium are returned from the extracellular fluids and again concentrated within the cell membrane.

The amazing thing about this entire process is that the cells release the precise amount of electrical energy required for all of the necessary metabolic activities of the estimated 100 trillion cells of the body. When exposed to ionizing radiation, this sensitive energy mechanism can be altered and the normal cellular activity can be seriously damaged.

Magnesium is an essential component of numerous metalloenzyme systems. Magnesium serves as an inorganic cofactor, activating a great deal of enzymatic activity throughout the body. In addition to magnesium, for full enzymatic activity to occur potassium, copper, iron, molybdenum, manganese, calcium, zinc and cobalt are required.

Magnesium plays a major role in maintaining the electrical potential across muscle and nerve membranes (Aikawa, 1981).

The master molecule of the body, DNA, which is concerned with protein synthesis, uses magnesium in protein formation.

Magnesium is important in the storage and release of chemicals in the adenosine diphosphate/triphosphate energy system. Consequently, magnesium is stored in large quantities within the mitochondria, the energy powerhouse of cells.

Lutetium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Lithium
Lithium is an essential trace mineral (NRC, 1989). The mineral antagonists to lithium are unknown.

Lithium is believed to be an important modulator in the conversion of essential fatty acids into prostaglandins. Prostaglandins area a group of hormone-like compounds which are made in various tissues of the body derived from essential fatty acids that play an important role in a variety of functions in the body. They are found in semen, affect the nervous system, circulation, female reproductive organs, and general metabolism of the body.

Lithium is considered consequential to the production of white blood cells and the inhibition of T-suppresser cell activity. Lithium is also believed to play a role in maintaining intracellular membrane activity.

Lithium has been found to have a distinct affect on the brain in both mania and depression. Lithium stabilizes serotonin neurotransmission. Lithium has been used to treat alcoholics, because it produces a taste aversion to alcohol.

The RDA for lithium is 2 – 3 mg.

Lead Top Of Page
Surprisingly Lead is an essential trace mineral in very small quantities. Lead is an antagonist to selenium and zinc. Conversely, selenium and zinc act as antagonists to lead (Cerklewski and Forbes, 1976) as illustrated on the mineral wheel. Lead is one of the more toxic minerals known in large doses and is especially a problem because the average person has more lead in their body than is compatible with human health. California Proposition 65 is the strictest guideline in the world for lead and it allows .50 PPM and ours is at .061 PPM so lead is clearly not an issue with Brazil Coral. Additionally, some of the other minerals found in coral, such as calcium, copper, phosphorus, zinc, and chromium have a protective effect from lead poisoning.

Lanthanum
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Iron
Iron is the most abundant element in the earth's crust and is an essential trace mineral. It is an antagonist calcium, copper, manganese, phosphorus and zinc (see mineral wheel). The process of antagonism is used by the body to maintain mineral homeostatis. Iron, an essential trace mineral, is found in the body at levels of 60 PPM. It achieved it's essential mineral status largely because of it's role in the heme molecule in red blood cells which of course permit oxygen transport and electron transport, both vital for life.

If iron deficiency exists, hemoglobin production is restricted and a severe anemia may result. Iron deficiency anemia is a serious public health problem in some parts of the world. Excessive iron intake can also be a serious problem enhancing free radical activity in the body or damaging the liver. The regulatory systems involved in iron absorption have not been completely defined to date.

Iridium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Iodine
Iodine is an antagonist to cobalt, iron and arsenic.

Iodine is an essential trace element that is required by the thyroid gland in the production of the thyroid hormones, thyroxin and triiodothyronine, which have important metabolic roles and govern basal metabolism. An iodine deficiency will result in goiter, lowered vitality, inability to think clearly, lowered basal metabolism, lowered resistance to infections, cretinism, defective teeth, drooling, tendency to obesity, loss of vascular tone, and retarded development of the sexual organs. Iodine apparently is involved in every tissue of the body. The thyroid hormones have a controlling and stabilizing influence on every biochemical reaction on the body, including calcium, phosphorus, and starch metabolism (Passwater and Cranton, 1983).

The amount of iodine in the adult human is about 30 – 50 mg, the bulk of which is stored in the thyroid gland as a constituent of the thyroid gland hormones. Less than one percent is found in the blood, but some iodine is found in all tissues.

The RDA for iodine is 150 mcg.

Indium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Holmium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

HafniumTop Of Page
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Gold
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Geranium
It is not considered to be an essential trace mineral, but in the geranium sesquioxide form it is said to contribute oxygen to the tissues which is helpful in the treatment of chronic degenerative disease.

No RDA has been established for germanium.

Gallium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Gadolinium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Fluorine
Fluorine is an essential trace element.

Fluorine combines with calcium to form insoluble calcium fluoride. Fluorine is used to prevent tooth decay and for strengthening bones. Fluorine is an antagonist to calcium and iodine.There is said to be widespread deficiency of fluorine in the diet of many Americans. The RDA in adults is about 1 mg (Schroeder, 1973).

Europium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Erbium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Dysprosium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Copper
Copper is an antagonist to iron, molybdenum, phosphorus, and sulfur.

Copper is an essential trace mineral, but all of its functions in the body have not been fully elucidated. Copper is known to be a constituent of more than one dozen metalloenzyme systems such as the respiratory cytochromes, cytochrome oxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalse, tyrosinase, monoamine oxidase, dopamine hydroxylase, lecithinase, uricase and others. Copper serves as a catalyst in the oxidation of vitamin C. Copper and iron are necessary for the synthesis of hemoglobin.

Copper deficiencies can lead to a large number of disease processes such as anemia, skeletal defects due to demineralization, nerve degeneration, reproductive failure, cardiovascular lesions, elevated blood cholesterol, pigmentation and hair structural defects, and immune impairment. A deficiency of copper also leads to an enlarged heart, and weak blood vessels. Excessive intake of copper can be deleterious and produce subtle toxic effects. An excessive zinc intake may aggravate the problems of a copper deficiency.

The average adult body contains about 50 – 120 mg of copper, about one-third of which is evenly distributed between the brain and the liver.

The RDA for copper in an adult is 2 – 3 mg.

CobaltTop Of Page
Cobalt is an antagonist to iron and iodine. The only known function of cobalt is that it is an integral part of vitamin B12, cyanocobalamin, which is essential to humans in blood formation. Strict vegetarians may suffer from cobalt deficiency since vitamin B12 is found only in animal products.

No official RDA has been established for humans. The minimum dietary requirement of cobalt in humans as a part of vitamin B12 is 0.043 mcg per day.

Chromium
Chromium is an essential trace mineral. It has been found that many diets are not only deficient in chromium, but some diets have a tendency to use up the existing chromium, by enhancing the excretion of chromium reserves in the body.

Chromium is important in carbohydrate metabolism by assisting insulin in the control of glucose in the blood. Failure to maintain adequate blood glucose because of a chromium deficiency may result in an increase in atherosclerosis, heart disease, diabetes, hypoglycemia, and impaired protein metabolism. Chromium is also involved with fat metabolism (Goodhart and Shils, 1978).

Chromium plays an important role in glucose metabolism through the Glucose Tolerance Factor (GTF). The GTF is a complex of trivalent chromium, niacin and three amino acids that are found in glutathione. Thus, it has been found that chromium is an essential mineral, involved with the vitamin B component cyancobalamin (B12), and the hormone insulin. An excellent discussion on the various roles of chromium can be found in Harper (1973), Schroeder (1973), Goodhart and Shils (1978), Passwater and Cranton (1983), and Voet and Voet 1990).

There is a definite correlation between chromium deficiency and increased plaque throughout the arteries of the body. All of the various roles of chromium in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins have not been fully elucidated.

The RDA for chromium is 50 – 200 mcg.

Chlorine
Chlorine is an essential mineral, functioning as an important electrolyte mineral, the chloride ion (CI-). It is present in the body at about 1,200 ppm.

As an essential element of the body, the chloride ion also includes potassium and sodium. Table salt is sodium chloride, with about 60 percent being the chloride ion. The RDA of chloride for adults is 1,400 to 1,500 mg. (Schroeder, 1973; Goodhart and Shils, 1978).

Chloride ion (CI-) and bicarbonate ion (-HCO3) are the dominant anions in the extracellular fluids outside of the cells. Chloride ion participates with sodium, potassium, bicarbonate, and carbonic acid in playing a major role in water metabolism, osmosis, and acid-base balance.

Cesium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Cerium
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Carbon
Carbon is not a mineral so its role needs not be discussed.

Calcium
Calcium is a major essential mineral, being the most abundant in the human body at about 14,000 PPM (Schroeder, 1973). It is also the most abundant mineral found in Brazilian Fresh Harvest Coral™ at 279,000 PPM. Calcium acts as an antagonist to copper, fluorine, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, and zinc (see mineral wheel).

Calcium must be ionized to be absorbed and this can be impared by inadequate gastric acidity. Calcium is more effective when taken with other minerals so as to provide a mineral balance (Heaney, Becker and Weaver, 1990; Hulisz, 1990, Beal and Scofield, 1995; Harvey, 1988). With 298,706 articles listed in the National Institute of Health's online resource PubMed, the amount of clinical information available on Calcium is so large that the scope of this presentation cannot begin to cover it.

Cadmium
Cadmium, an essential trace mineral (NRC, 1989), is an antagonist to copper and zinc. Zinc is a potent antagonist to cadmium.

Cadmium is known to be a toxic metal and may be a more serious public health problem than lead. Nevertheless, some investigations have shown that cadmium is an essential trace mineral at low dosages (NRC, 1989). Most foods contain varying amounts of cadmium (Schroeder, 1973).

Cadmium may inhibit growth and reproduction, and may produce a variety of pathological conditions. Cadmium can produce high blood pressure. Whenever food products come in contact with galvanized metals, cadmium can be picked up in the food.

High calcium intake can partially protect against cadmium assimilation. Zinc, selenium, iron and vitamin C can also help to increase cadmium excretion. Pectin can reduce cadmium absorption, and a high protein diet is useful in reducing cadmium retention.

Inhaled cadmium is more readily absorbed than dietary cadmium. The inhalation of cadmium may result from cigarette smoking. Cadmium is widely distributed in the environment in air, smoke, food, and in the water (Frieberg, Piscator, and Nordberg, 1971; Tsuchiya, 1978). Hair analysis is a reliable method of determining the amount of cadmium in the body (Schroeder, 1973; Passwater and Cranton, 1983).

No RDA has been established for cadmium.Top Of Page

Bromine
This mineral’s function within the body, if any, is unknown. It is found in extremely minute quantities. It is quite possible that at some future date it may be found to have some function in the body.

Boron


Boron occurs in sea water at the infinitesimal level of 4,600 ppb. Boron is an essential trace mineral in plants where it is involved in a number of important metabolic functions (NRC, 1989). Its exact role in the body is unknown, however, recent experimental evidence suggest boron may be essential for energy utilization and the development and maintenance of bone (Hunt, 1994).

There is no RDA for boron.

Bismuth
Bismuth is reportedly not found in human tissue or plants and is not considered an essential trace mineral (Venugopal and Luckey, 1978)

Beryllium
Beryllium in the form of its salts, carbonates, sulfates, siliconates, and oxides are widely distributed in nature, but only in very small quantities. No reports have shown that beryllium occurs in plant tissues. Beryllium is not essential for life, and there is no evidence that it has any biologic function in the body. Beryllium is antagonistic to phosphorus. Chronic exposure to large quantities of beryllium have been shown to be carcinogenic.

There is no RDA for beryllium.

Barium
Barium is widely distributed in nature and is found in almost all plants and animals. The adult human body contains about 22 mg of barium, and about 66 percent of that is found in the bones. Barium is found in nature as the carbonate of sulfate. Sea water contains about 0.03 ppm of barium. While barium is believed to contribute to growth in mammals, there is no evidence that it is an essential mineral. No RDA has been established for barium. Barium sulfate is nontoxic and is used in X-rays as an opaque substance of the examination of the intestinal tract. The toxicity of the various barium salts of calcium, strontium, and magnesium (Venugopal and Luckey, 1978).

Arsenic
In humans it is normally found in amounts of 20 mg distributed throughout the body. Arsenic is an antagonist to iodine and selenium.

Arsenic is an essential trace mineral (NRC, 1989). Studies in rats have shown that a deficiency of arsenic is associated with retarded growth.

Elemental arsenic is commonly eaten by many people, but arsenic trioxide is highly poisonous. Organic arsenic, such as arsenate, has a very low level of toxicity because it is rapidly excreted by the kidneys. Organic arsenic does not inhibit enzyme systems, and it can substitute for phosphorus in certain metalloenzyme systems. The chemical formulation of arsenic determines its toxicity to a major extent. Inorganic arsenic, such as arsenite, is quite toxic, accumulates in the tissues, and is the second leading cause of death from heavy metals.

Relatively little is known concerning the metabolism of arsenic in the body as a nutrient even though extensive research has been conducted on this subject. Nutritionists have found that it is almost impossible to prepare a diet for any laboratory animal that does not contain some traces of elemental arsenic. Many seafoods contain appreciable quantities of arsenic, usually in a range of 3 – 10.3 ppm.

The blood of an average adult contains about 2.5 mg. Since arsenic tends to accumulate in the body with age the amount of arsenic in older people also increases. When arsenic enters the body, it binds to the globin of the hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells.

Regardless of the type of arsenic, it is excreted by the kidneys. The efficient urinary excretion of arsenic by the kidneys is part of the homeostatic system that controls the release of arsenic so as to prevent an accumulation of arsenic. When acute intoxication from arsenic does occur, it is a consequence of overwhelming the system. It is the difference between drinking water from a glass of drinking water from the bottom of a swimming pool. At less than 1 PPM, the arsenic in Brazil Coral is insignificant compared to the amount ingested in normal diets.

The RDA for arsenic has not been established.

Antimony
No evidence exists suggesting that antimony is essential to human health. Exposure to large amounts of antimony can be toxic. Doses of antimony salts in rats at less than 100 mg per day were found to stimulate growth. The level of Antimony in Brazil coral is far too low to be concerned about.

AluminumTop Of Page
Aluminum is found in the human body at the level of 0.9 ppm (Schroeder, 1973). Aluminum is widely distributed in plant and animal tissues in nature, but its physiological function is unknown. Whether aluminum is an essential mineral is also not known. In small quantities aluminum is believed to be inert. Large quantities of aluminum fed to rats experimentally demonstrated that the rats developed rickets, believed to be due to the interference of aluminum in the absorption of phosphorus. Aluminum or one of the its salts is widely used in veterinary and human medicine.

Large quantities of aluminum are thought to be taken into the diet with the use of aluminum cooking utensils, drugs, baking powder, cosmetics, and certain food additives.

A growing amount of evidence suggest that aluminum may be a neurotoxin affecting the neurofibrillary tangles of the brain and causing dementia such as Alzheimer’s disease, a form of senility in Parkinson’s disease, and dialysis dementia (Passwater and Cranton, 1983). Fortunately, aluminum is poorly absorbed in the intestine. Considerable controversy continues as to its neurotoxicity.

Aluminum is antagonistic to phosphorus, fluorine, and iron (Venugopal and Luckey, 1978; Passwater and Cranton, 1983). The amount of aluminum in coral is believed to be insignificant compared to the amounts derived from aluminum cooking utensils and medicines. The total amount of aluminum in the body is the range of 50 to 150 mg, and no RDA is available for aluminum.

If you have concerns regarding the safety of Aluminum, please see the recent peer-reviewed abstract below:

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;33(1):66-79. Related Articles, Links


Safety evaluation of dietary aluminum.

Soni MG, White SM, Flamm WG, Burdock GA.

Burdock and Associates, Inc., 622 Beachland Boulevard, Suite B, Vero Beach, Florida 32963, USA.

Aluminum is a nonessential metal to which humans are frequently exposed. Aluminum in the food supply comes from natural sources, water used in food preparation, food ingredients, and utensils used during food preparations. The amount of aluminum in the diet is small, compared with the amount of aluminum in antacids and some buffered analgesics. The healthy human body has effective barriers (skin, lungs, gastrointestinal tract) to reduce the systemic absorption of aluminum ingested from water, foods, drugs, and air. The small amount of aluminum (<1%) that is systemically absorbed is excreted principally in the urine and, to a lesser extent, in the feces. No reports of dietary aluminum toxicity to healthy individuals exist in the literature. Aluminum can be neurotoxic, when injected directly into the brains of animals and when accidentally introduced into human brains (by dialysis or shrapnel). A study from Canada reports cognitive and other neurological deficits among groups of workers occupationally exposed to dust containing high levels of aluminum. While the precise pathogenic role of aluminum in Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains to be defined, present data do not support a causative role for aluminum in AD. High intake of aluminum from antacid for gastrointestinal ailments has not been reported to cause any adverse effects and has not been correlated with neurotoxicity or AD. Foods and food ingredients are generally the major dietary sources of aluminum in the United States. Cooking in aluminum utensils often results in statistically significant, but relatively small, increases in aluminum content of food. Common aluminum-containing food ingredients are used mainly as preservatives, coloring agents, leavening agents, anticaking agents, etc. Safety evaluation and approval of these ingredients by the Food and Drug Administration indicate that these aluminum-containing compounds are safe for use in foods.

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